She received a BA in English Language and Literature and an MA in Psychology from the University of Tehran. Pursuing her studies in the US, she received an M.ED. from the Bank Street College of Education, while studying literature and literary criticism, particularly as applied to modern Persian fiction. Her articles and books focus mainly on psychoanalysis and literature. She is the author of Psychoanalysis and Literature: Two Texts, Two Selves, Two Worlds (Tehran, 1995), Living in the Mirror: A Literary Perspective (Tehran, 2005), and Persian Fiction and Modernity (Tehran, 2009). She is the Consulting Editor on Modern Persian Fiction to the Encyclopædia Iranica to which she has contributed the article "Modern Fiction: History and Development".