SAKAS: IN AFGHANISTAN
A new addition to Encyclopaedia Iranica
The ethnonym Saka appears in ancient Iranian and Indian sources as the name of the large family of Iranian nomads called Scythians by the Classical Western sources and Sai by the Chinese (Gk. Sacae; OPers. Sakā). From their realms in the Central Asian plains, the Sakas appear to have moved southwards towards the territories of present-day Afghanistan about the mid-second century BCE, making their way first into Bactria, then through Aria, Drangiana, and Arachosia, and finally the Paropamisadai mountains, up to the whole of the Kabul river valley.